This website serves as an expansion of a guide that was originally featured on my perfume history platform, Cleopatra's Boudoir. Consider it akin to an internet-based museum dedicated to the art of perfumery. Here, I delve deeply into the historical background of the perfumes offered by Rosine, the fragrance house founded by the illustrious Parisian couturier Paul Poiret. Poiret holds the notable distinction of being the pioneer fashion designer who ventured into the perfume industry, marking a significant milestone in the intersection of fashion and fragrance.

Note: All black and white photos have been enhanced and colorized by me, they may not be accurate, but I think it makes them a little more interesting.

Paul Poiret's journey into the world of fashion began unconventionally under the guidance of his father, a tailor who initially apprenticed him to an umbrella-maker. However, it was during his leisure time that Poiret discovered his innate talent for dress design, initially as a recreational pursuit. His sketches quickly gained recognition and were eagerly sought after by prestigious establishments along Rue de la Paix. After honing his skills at Doucet from 1897 to 1900, Poiret later joined Worth, solidifying his reputation as a designer of note.

In 1904, Paul Poiret ventured to establish his own fashion house on Rue Pasquier, later relocating to Rue du Faubourg Saint Honoré, a move that distinguished his brand from the established salons of Jacques Doucet and Charles Worth. Poiret's creative ambitions were not confined to prestigious addresses; he sought a unique space to express his visionary designs. He eventually found an old, abandoned mansion on Chaussee d'Antin (now Avenue Franklin-Roosevelt), formerly used by the pages of Louis XVI.

Teaming up with architect Louis Sue, Poiret embarked on a swift three-month renovation of the mansion, adorning it with period furniture to create a fitting backdrop for his revolutionary styles. The mansion's gardens, dramatically situated at the base of a seventeen-meter flight of steps, became a picturesque setting enhanced by bronze statues of leaping does, inspired by antiquities from Naples. This historic venue became synonymous with Poiret's vibrant social gatherings, hosting prominent figures from both America and Europe who were captivated by his innovative designs and unique sense of style.

Poiret initially captured the attention of the haute monde by revolutionizing the female silhouette. Unlike his contemporaries who favored the restrictive S-bend corsets that contorted and constrained women's bodies, Poiret adamantly rejected such outdated fashion norms. He famously remarked that the S-shaped silhouette made women appear as if they were towing a trailer. Instead, he introduced a more natural and streamlined silhouette that liberated women from the discomfort of traditional corsetry.

One of Poiret's notable innovations was the introduction of "hobble skirts," which featured fabric gathered around the ankles, compelling wearers to take smaller, mincing steps. This design not only challenged conventional notions of movement but also symbolized Poiret's penchant for pushing boundaries in fashion. Unlike his peers, who favored loose drapery and sumptuous embellishments, Poiret embraced daring elements such as harem pants, exotic textiles, and vibrant jewel tones. His designs exuded a sense of freedom and modernity, marking him as a trailblazer in the world of haute couture.

Paul Poiret shop c1904.

On October 4, 1905, Paul Poiret married Denise Boulet at the Church of the Madeleine. Denise, the daughter of clothier Emmanuel Boulet, who owned a textile factory in Elbeuf, became an integral part of Poiret's fashion legacy. Beyond being his wife, Denise played a crucial role as a partner in Poiret's burgeoning fashion empire. Her background in textiles complemented Poiret's creative vision, contributing to the innovative fabrics and designs that defined his revolutionary approach to haute couture. Together, they navigated the evolving landscape of early 20th-century fashion, leaving a lasting imprint on the industry through their collaborative efforts.

Paul Poiret expanded his creative pursuits beyond fashion by establishing three distinct divisions within his company. Atelier Martine, named after his youngest daughter, focused on the decorative arts and furnishings, embodying Poiret's vision of integrating artistic elements into everyday life. Les Parfums de Rosine, named after his eldest daughter, ventured into the realm of perfumery, showcasing Poiret's keen sense of scent and aesthetics. Additionally, Atelier Colin, named after his son, served as an art studio, reflecting Poiret's commitment to nurturing artistic talent across different mediums. Through these divisions, Poiret not only diversified his business but also cemented his legacy as a visionary entrepreneur who seamlessly bridged fashion with art and fragrance.

In 1910, Paul Poiret pioneered the concept of couturier fragrances during discussions with perfumer Henri Almeras. Almeras, who had previously worked briefly at the Chiris factory alongside notable figures like Ernest Beaux (famed for creating Chanel N°5), Vincent Roubert (chief perfumer at Coty), and Henri Robert (chief perfumer at Chanel), was instrumental in bringing Poiret's olfactory visions to life. His expertise eventually led him to become the chief perfumer for Jean Patou, where he composed the iconic and now legendary fragrance, Joy, which remains a milestone in perfumery history despite its discontinuation. Almeras' collaboration with Poiret marked a pivotal moment in the intersection of fashion and fragrance, laying the foundation for couturier perfumes that would redefine luxury and elegance in the years to come.

During their collaboration, Paul Poiret and Henri Almeras delved into the innovative synthesis of natural plant extracts, previously used mainly as base essences in perfumery. This included essences derived from orange blossom, rose, jasmine, iris, and violet, among others. Inspired by their discussions, Poiret explored the potential of new synthetic extracts such as methyl ionone, which mimicked the fragrance of violets. This marked a significant departure from traditional perfumery practices and set the stage for experimentation with complex scent compositions.

Poiret and Almeras relied heavily on prefabricated bases supplied by the Fabrique de Laire, a renowned manufacturer known for its aromatic chemicals. These bases, such as Amber 83, Prunol, Bouvardia, and the iconic Mousse de Saxe (derived from oakmoss), formed the foundational elements of many chypre perfumes. Around these bases, additional aromatic notes were layered to create intricate and harmonious perfume compositions. De Laire also specialized in synthetic essences like hydroxycitronnellal, vanillin, and heliotropine, contributing to the diversity and richness of their fragrance creations.

According to perfumer Guy Robert, Henri Almeras collaborated closely with suppliers like Givaudan's Marius Reboul and Chuit Naef's Maurice Chevron, who were pivotal figures in providing raw materials and bases during that era. This partnership with leading suppliers underscored Poiret and Almeras' commitment to pushing the boundaries of perfumery, blending artistry with technological advancements to craft perfumes that captivated and defined their time.

In 1911, Paul Poiret turned to his college friend, Dr. Midy, a chemist who owned a prestigious pharmaceutical laboratory located at 113 Faubourg-St Honoré Street in Paris. Established in 1718 by a family of pharmacists, Laboratoires Midy was renowned for producing innovative products. Dr. Midy himself was credited with creating Cocaine Midy pastilles and the highly sought-after essential oil known as Santal Midy, derived from the Citrine Santal of Bombay (Mysore sandalwood).

Poiret's longstanding friendship with Dr. Midy undoubtedly played a pivotal role in his creative ventures. It is highly likely that Poiret utilized Santal Midy oil as a foundational element in his perfume compositions, leveraging its exceptional quality and aromatic profile to enhance his olfactory creations. This collaboration between Poiret, the visionary fashion designer, and Dr. Midy, the accomplished chemist and innovator, underscores the intersection of art and science in the development of luxury fragrances during the early 20th century. Their partnership not only enriched Poiret's perfumes with distinctive notes but also contributed to the legacy of Laboratoires Midy as a pioneer in pharmaceutical and aromatic sciences.

Dr. Midy played a pivotal role in collaborating with Paul Poiret on the intricate formulation of diverse perfume compositions. Beyond merely employing synthetic blends, Poiret was deeply interested in capturing the essence of natural aromas extracted from a wide array of sources. This included rare flowers, verdant grasses, aromatic leaves, succulent fruits, and robust woods like cedar and pine. Poiret's fascination extended to more exotic scents such as the essence of coffee, which he sought to incorporate into his fragrances. Dr. Midy's expertise in pharmaceutical and aromatic sciences complemented Poiret's artistic vision, enabling them to craft perfumes that not only embodied luxurious elegance but also reflected a pioneering approach to scent creation in the early 20th century.

Paul Poiret's foray into perfume creation began with promising results, prompting him to establish a dedicated laboratory in the mews of his late 18th-century mansion at 39 rue Colisée. This strategic move not only contained the potent aromas of his experiments but also provided him with the privacy needed to refine his craft. The mansion itself, known for its opulence, was eventually replaced with a new building in 1920, designed by architect Charles Bonnal.

Initially, Poiret indulged in blending scents as a personal leisure activity, creating fragrances that he used for his own enjoyment. However, as word of his olfactory experiments spread among his circle of friends and acquaintances, interest grew. Soon, inquiries began pouring in from admirers who were captivated by the captivating results of his perfume creations. This initial intrigue marked the beginning of Poiret's journey into the commercial world of perfumery, where his innovative blends would eventually capture the attention of a broader audience, solidifying his reputation as a visionary in both fashion and fragrance.

The genesis of Paul Poiret's venture into perfumery began organically, with some of his early fragrances initially used to refresh the air in his fashion salons, where ventilation was lacking. Customers visiting these salons were so enamored by the scents that they began requesting personalized perfumes for themselves. Responding to this demand, Poiret transitioned from crafting bespoke fragrances individually to industrializing his concept. He installed a small perfumery case in his salon, offering a selection of his creations, which proved immensely popular. This success prompted Poiret to expand his perfumery line further, culminating in the opening of a dedicated shop in 1911.

Located to the left of the entrance at 107 Faubourg Saint-Honoré, alongside the Atelier Martine studio, Les Parfums de Rosine was named after Poiret's eldest daughter, Rosine. Beyond fragrances, the boutique also offered toiletries and cosmetics, positioned as essential accessories to complement Poiret's avant-garde fashion creations. Poiret believed that his perfumes should enhance and harmonize with his designs, akin to jewelry or other fashion accessories. This approach democratized luxury; those who couldn't afford Poiret's high-fashion couture could still indulge in his distinctive fragrances, thereby experiencing a part of his artistic vision. This integration of fashion and fragrance not only diversified Poiret's business but also underscored his pioneering spirit in merging artistry with commercial innovation during the early 20th century.

Rosine perfume lab

Paul Poiret was steadfast in his belief that the success of his fragrances should match the acclaim of his fashion designs, leading him to invest lavishly in every aspect of their creation, packaging, and promotion. Recognizing the artistic potential of perfume as an extension of his brand, Poiret enlisted numerous artists and illustrators to craft captivating visuals for Rosine. They designed magazine advertisements, hand fans, posters, leaflets, perfume cards, and conceptualized innovative packaging and labels.

To ensure meticulous attention to detail and quality control, Poiret went a step further by establishing a glassworks and a cardboard factory at 37 Boulevard Verdun in Courbevoie. This facility was dedicated to producing exquisite bottles and sophisticated packaging for his perfumes. Poiret personally oversaw operations, employing a dedicated team of thirty to forty staff who were instrumental in bringing his vision to life.

By integrating these efforts, Poiret not only elevated the presentation of his fragrances but also reinforced their luxurious appeal. This strategic investment underscored his commitment to craftsmanship and aesthetics, establishing Les Parfums de Rosine as a prestigious brand synonymous with elegance and innovation in both fashion and fragrance industries of the early 20th century.

Before 1914, Paul Poiret employed approximately 300 people across various spaces within his compound. The working day extended from 8 am to 7 pm, with factory workers provided daily luncheons accompanied by wine. The workforce was a mix of men and women, with women primarily tasked with delicate roles such as filling bottles by hand and skillfully tying baudruchage cords around bottle necks and stoppers for sealing. This division of labor created a quasi-assembly line environment within the factory, where groups of women gathered around designated tables, each focused on specific tasks. One table would be dedicated to filling bottles, another to baudruchage, another to applying paper labels, and yet another to boxing up the finished products and wrapping them in decorative papers.

The efficiency of this organized system not only ensured the smooth production of Poiret's perfumes but also highlighted his commitment to both craftsmanship and equitable employment practices. By providing women with integral roles in the manufacturing process, Poiret not only utilized their dexterity but also contributed to their economic empowerment within the workforce of early 20th-century Paris. This operational model exemplified Poiret's visionary approach to integrating artistry, technology, and social responsibility in his burgeoning perfume enterprise.

By 1919, production at the Courbevoie factory under Paul Poiret's direction surged, averaging an impressive 200,000 bottles of perfume each month. These exquisite fragrances were not only destined for domestic markets, gracing the shelves of Rosine's flagship store and other upscale boutiques throughout France, but also made their way across the Atlantic to prestigious department stores in America and England. Prior to the establishment of Rosine's own retail presence in 1928 at 29 W. 37th Street in New York City, distribution in the United States was managed by Rosine's exclusive agent, Maurice Levy. In Britain, WH Calman & Co served as the sole agents for Rosine, ensuring that Poiret's luxurious scents reached discerning customers abroad with sophistication and style. This strategic expansion marked a significant chapter in Rosine's global reach and solidified its reputation as a premier purveyor of high-quality perfumes in the early 20th century.. 

In 1922, Paul Poiret embarked on a significant journey to the United States, where he personally visited Maurice Levy at his office located at 120 West 41st Street in New York City. This meeting underscored Poiret's proactive approach to expanding his perfume business internationally. During this visit, Poiret shared with the Cosmetics & Toiletries Journal his innovative approach to perfumery, highlighting his experimentation with novel aromatic products that infused his fragrances with a distinct new character.

Poiret's emphasis on employing these new aromatic products aimed not only to innovate within the perfume industry but also to cater to evolving consumer tastes. His commitment to incorporating novel elements into his perfumes reflected his continuous pursuit of excellence and his keen understanding of the dynamic nature of luxury goods markets, particularly in the cosmopolitan landscape of 1920s America.

This transatlantic encounter between Poiret and Levy marked a pivotal moment in Rosine's history, showcasing Poiret's determination to leverage American markets for his perfumes. His willingness to embrace new ideas and ingredients not only set him apart as a visionary perfumer but also positioned Rosine as a brand at the forefront of international fragrance trends.

Revue des marques de la parfumerie et de la savonnerie,1927:
"The perfume factory erected under the pretty name of Rosine already has fifteen springs [years since opening]. The robust youth places it in the number of the best reputed Parisian Perfumeries. Created by Mr. Paul Poiret, it became in 1925 - (and this to respond to the industrial and commercial development required by the reception given to its products) - an independent company to which Mr. Paul Poiret continues to bring the learned taste and refinement of an artist. Each of his productions has been a new success. Yes, no one knows Nuit de Chine Toute la Foret, Qui Est Tu?, Avenue du Bois, Hahna (the Secret Flower), Arlequinade, Maharadjah, etc. These perfumes, presented in an original and luxurious way, constitute the whole range of a new and unexpected taste, perfectly developed. No woman today is insensitive to Parfums de Rosine."

In addition to its renowned perfumes, Rosine under Paul Poiret's guidance offered a comprehensive range of cosmetics that embraced daring and avant-garde aesthetics. The collection included bold eyeliner, vibrant lip rouge, finely crafted face powders, and meticulously formulated nail polish. Enhancing the allure of these cosmetics were the ornate containers: face creams were elegantly housed in colorful galalith pots, while Poiret's distinctive textiles adorned cardboard boxes containing face powders. This attention to detail not only underscored Poiret's commitment to luxury but also elevated Rosine's products to coveted status among fashionable clientele.

Antique Rosine catalogs provide glimpses of lesser-known products that have become exceedingly rare today, such as soaps, hair lotions, skincare creams, and talcum powders. These items reflected Rosine's comprehensive approach to personal care, combining efficacy with elegance. Additionally, the brand catered to travelers with perfumed sachets in iconic scents like Nuit de Chine, Borgia, and Toute la Foret, offering luxury in compact, portable forms.

The diverse array of cosmetics and personal care products offered by Rosine not only complemented Poiret's avant-garde fashion creations but also represented his vision of beauty as a holistic experience. By merging artistry with functionality, Rosine positioned itself as a pioneer in luxury cosmetics, setting standards that resonated with the sophisticated tastes of its discerning clientele during the early 20th century.

 Similar to the innovative approach taken by French perfumery Molinard with their iconic Habanita fragrance, Rosine also ventured into unique offerings. They provided perfumed cigarettes and ampoules containing exotic scents such as Borgia, Le Balcon, Hahna, Maharadjah, and Nuit de Chine. These products allowed customers to infuse their own cigarettes with these luxurious fragrances, adding a touch of sophistication and personalization to their smoking experience. This initiative not only showcased Rosine's creativity in expanding beyond traditional perfumery but also catered to the avant-garde tastes of their clientele, blending luxury with the art of fragrance in unconventional yet stylish ways.

Paul Poiret in his perfume factory c1920s. Image: lula.pl

Paul Poiret in his perfume factory c1920s.

 Originally specializing in perfumery glassware, Maurice Schaller transitioned into a pivotal role within Paul Poiret's perfume department. With a burgeoning interest in perfume technology, Schaller played a crucial role in the creation of several of Poiret's iconic fragrances, including the celebrated Nuit de Chine. His expertise and dedication ensured that Poiret's perfumes were not only aesthetically pleasing but also technically innovative. Throughout this period, Schaller collaborated closely with Emmanuel Boulet, Poiret's father-in-law, further enhancing the sophistication and quality of the perfumes produced under Poiret's brand.

The outbreak of World War I disrupted many industries, including perfumery, yet Schaller's contributions persisted as he continued to innovate and create successful fragrances. Post-war, he expanded his collaborations, crafting notable perfumes for renowned companies like Revillon, where he composed the enduring classic Carnet de Bal. Meanwhile, Poiret himself forged partnerships with esteemed perfumers such as Henri Almeras, renowned for creating Jean Patou's legendary fragrance, Joy. These collaborations marked a significant period of growth and innovation for Poiret's perfumery endeavors, solidifying his reputation as a visionary in both fashion and fragrance during the early 20th century.

The perfume collection from Rosine captivated imaginations with its evocative names that conjured images of exoticism and allure. Among these fragrances were Le Fruit Défendu (The Forbidden Fruit), Borgia, Nuit de Chine (Night in China), Hahna, Le Balcon, and Sakyamouni. Notably, Nuit de Chine, initially named Nuit d'Orient and crafted by Maurice Schaller, stood out for its Oriental-inspired essence. These names were not merely labels but gateways to sensory experiences, capturing the essence of distant lands and historical narratives through their aromatic compositions. Rosine's perfumes underlined Paul Poiret's visionary approach to fragrance, blending creativity with cultural inspirations to offer scents that resonated with sophistication and exotic allure during the early 20th century.

Paul Poiret's passion for 18th-century fabrics extended beyond mere admiration; he actively sought out and collected scraps of these exquisite textiles. Utilizing his treasured finds, Poiret adorned the packaging of his perfumes and powder boxes, infusing them with historical charm and luxury. When supplies of genuine antique fabrics ran low, Poiret commissioned block-printed cotton fabrics and printed papers that mimicked the aesthetics of the original textiles. This initiative ensured continuity in the lavish presentation of Les Parfums Rosine, reflecting Poiret's dedication to preserving and celebrating historical craftsmanship.

At the Atelier Colin workshop, Poiret's skilled designers meticulously silk-screened the paper and cloth used to cover the luxurious presentation boxes for Rosine perfumes and cosmetics. The packaging not only mirrored the opulence of Poiret's fashion designs but also emphasized vivid colors, sumptuous textures, and intricate patterns reminiscent of harlequin and Oriental lampshade motifs. These elements transformed the packaging into visual delights that mirrored the sophistication and artistic flair synonymous with Poiret's creations.

To further enhance the allure of his products, Poiret incorporated Chinese Peking glass beads to adorn the lavish tassels adorning the powder boxes. This attention to detail underscored Poiret's commitment to craftsmanship and luxury, ensuring that every aspect of Rosine's presentation resonated with elegance and historical reverence. By integrating elements of fashion into perfumery packaging, Poiret not only elevated the aesthetic appeal of his products but also reinforced his legacy as a pioneering figure in the convergence of art, fashion, and fragrance during the early 20th century.

The perfume bottles of Rosine bore the hallmark of exquisite craftsmanship, crafted by renowned French glass manufacturers Depinoix and Lefebure. These esteemed artisans ensured each bottle was a testament to both beauty and functionality. At Atelier Martine, Poiret's workshop dedicated to decorative arts, students were tasked with hand-painting the delicate glass bottles, particularly those intended for Rosine Eau de Colognes and atomizers. This meticulous process involved applying vibrant colors and intricate patterns to enhance the bottles' visual appeal and reflect the luxurious essence of the fragrances within.

Examining examples from Rosine's collection reveals a rich diversity in design and coloration. Each bottle showcased unique patterns that ranged from bold geometrics to delicate floral motifs, demonstrating the skill and artistry infused into every piece. The collaboration between Poiret's vision and the artisanal expertise of Atelier Martine resulted in perfume bottles that were not just containers but exquisite objets d'art. These bottles not only preserved the fragrances but also embodied the sophistication and creativity synonymous with Paul Poiret's avant-garde approach to fashion and luxury during the early 20th century.

The partnership between Atelier Martine and the esteemed glass manufacturers not only elevated Rosine's perfumes aesthetically but also contributed to their collectible status. Each bottle became a testament to Poiret's dedication to blending artistry with functionality, ensuring that Rosine's perfumes stood out not only for their aromatic allure but also for their visual elegance. This integration of design, craftsmanship, and innovation underscored Poiret's enduring influence on both the worlds of fashion and fragrance, leaving a lasting legacy of beauty and creativity in the realm of luxury perfumery.

The perfume bottles produced for Rosine were not just containers but exquisite works of art, embodying luxury and sophistication. Among the most prized were those like the opulent black glass flacon designed for Borgia. This bottle was a testament to craftsmanship and extravagance, crafted from unique black crystal embedded with real gold dust, a technique known as "floating gold". These deluxe flacons were meticulously manufactured in France by Depinoix, renowned for their mastery in creating such luxurious vessels. The use of precious materials and intricate detailing elevated these bottles beyond mere packaging, making them coveted items that reflected the exclusivity and allure of Rosine's fragrances.

Similar luxurious flacons were also employed by other prestigious perfume houses, including Lentheric, highlighting their status as symbols of high-end perfumery. These bottles not only preserved the aromatic treasures within but also served as prestigious pieces of decorative art, coveted by collectors and connoisseurs alike. The collaboration between Rosine and Depinoix exemplified the fusion of artistry and functionality in perfume packaging, setting a standard for elegance and refinement in the industry. The legacy of these exquisite flacons continues to endure, representing the pinnacle of luxury and craftsmanship in the realm of perfumery during the early 20th century.

In the displayed photograph below, the diverse array of Rosine perfume bottles showcases a stunning variety of styles, shapes, colors, and decorative motifs. Each bottle is distinct: some feature elegant black glass stoppers, adding a touch of refinement, while others boast vibrant red stoppers that catch the eye. Gilded accents adorn some bottles, lending a luxurious gleam, while others incorporate metal elements for a contemporary twist. Several bottles are adorned with jaunty tassels, adding a playful and decorative flair to their design. Additionally, gold enamel is meticulously applied to some bottles, creating intricate patterns that enhance their opulence and visual appeal. The assortment of decorative motifs, from molded patterns to elaborate designs, reflects the artistic craftsmanship and attention to detail that characterize Rosine's perfume bottles, making each bottle a unique and exquisite piece of art that complements the luxurious fragrances they contain.

Poiret tells a story in his autobiography that indicates that Francois Coty offered to buy his perfumes. 
"I was with Rousseau [the chief bookkeeper] in my office, when one morning I saw arrive M. Coty, small and mild mannered, laced into a pale grey suit, with a little straw hat on his head. I didn't know him. A song of my youth came to my lips...he was a little man/All dressed in grey/Hey, hey... 
He seated himself with assurance in an armchair and made me the following declaration: 
"I have come to buy your perfumery business." 
"But", I told him, "it is not for sale." 
"If you continue as you are doing", he answered, "you will take fifteen years before you reach any great importance. If you come with me, you will profit from my management, and in two years you will be worth as much as I am." 
"Quite so, but in two years, my business will be yours, while in the contrary case, in fifteen years it would still be my own property."  
"You understand nothing about business, Monsieur", he replied, rising brusquely, and squashing his boater on his little head, he departed raging. Silently we watched him go; M. Coty had the dimensions of Bonaparte."

American Cloak and Suit Review, Volume 7, 1914:
PAUL POIRET MAKES SOME CORRECTIONS. Paul Poiret of Paris, writing in Harper's Bazaar, has the following comment to make: "The articles written about my trip to America have been shown to me now, upon my return to Paris, and I am quite aghast at what I am supposed to have said. Happily for me, I hope that the public will judge by my work and not by my words, for the latter have, in most cases, been singularly distorted. The only statement in all these articles which I wish to repeat again and again, is that all styles are admissible, provided they suit the women who wear them.  
Eclectisme is my watchword. But I never said that trousers or trouserettes should be generally adopted. I never said that slit skirts were the correct skirts to wear. I never said that women should dress in loud colors. I never advocated the use of heavy perfumes. I never said that small hats were more attractive than large ones. Those who understood me to make such statements mistook my meaning entirely. I said that a woman should wear whatever is becoming to her, and nothing that is not becoming. That is my first last and only principle."



Notions and Fancy Goods, Volume 50, 1916:
"Paul Poiret, perhaps best known to American as the premiere couturier, is also a maker of high grade perfumes, and during the past two years has worked his way up amongst the world’s leading perfumers. Some of his productions, which owing to the high cost of their ingredients are somewhat expensive, have nevertheless proven  [to be] a success wherever shown, particularly the perfume known as Nuit de Chine. This is put up in a replica of an antique Chinese bottle with a blue stopper set in a gold neck and two side handles of blue, enclosed in a gold lined box of gold and deep blue Chinese brocade. This, however, gives but a faint idea of the attractiveness of this package.
The cut herewith illustrates as well as can be done in black and white one of his newest productions. The beauty of the coloring of both the bottle containing the perfume and the box must be seen to be appreciated.
 One of his specialties which is not shown here, consists of two long cut crystal bottles with square necks and caps, joined together and put in a box of gold and silver canvas paper. It is called Madame et Monsieur. The label on the box is a very clever sketch in silhouette of a gentleman and lady, both having evidently reached the age of contentment and happiness. The two bottles are filled with perfume, one being light to match the silver covering, the other being of an amber tint, matching the gold. The label on the perfume called Madame is a little square of silver with a gloved hand holding a single rose, and that of the perfume called Monsieur consists of the same square, but in gold, and with a gentleman’s gloved hand holding a cigarette. As before stated, both bottles are connected; if you remove one from the package, you must remove the other. This is a very clever idea for an engagement or a wedding present, and gives a slight conception of the very original ideas evolved by this very clever man.
This very interesting line is put out under the name of Les Parfums de Rosine, Poiret not putting his own name on as the manufacturer, but simply a small label on the bottom which states “Les Parfums de Rosine, Sont Approuves Par Paul Poiret.”

Theatre Magazine, 1922:
You all know Paul Poiret as the great designer, the great artist in costume. But we wonder how many of you know him as a master creator of perfumes as well. Yet he is as incomparable in this métier as he is in that of frocks and their by-products. M. Poiret has created marvelous scents, odors to enhance the charm of women. 
He has captured them from plants, from trees, from fruits, from sources which until his originations, were supposed incapable of being transmuted in this fashion. And the results have been a series of perfumes with a subtle quality, a fascinating novelty and modernness hitherto unknown.  
We interviewed M. Poiret at the Ritz the day before he sailed nine thirty of a wild and stormy September morn. And already at that brisk hour, we were third on a list. M. Poiret had been seeing people since eight o'clock. Let no one tell you the artist is an unbusinesslike person, impractical diffuse in talk, unpunctual to engagements. In many instances, we have found him more businesslike and efficient than even the so-called professional business man. That is at least, the big artists.  
Our interview with M. Poiret for example, was as smooth, as suave, as utterly time-saving, as the best efficiency expert could wish. It flowed in a beautiful curve from the moment when M. Poiret opened the door of his suite for us himself, swankily clad in brown and scarlet cravat, to the end of the half hour when the door closed on us again, the exact measure of gracious courtesy from M. Poiret that the occasion demanded not a superfluous phrase in the telling of his story. Here it is as he gave it in his fluent and excellent English, delightfully tinged with French idiom and accent.  
"To begin with," said M. Poiret, "I have had a very definite purpose as parfumeur... I have tried to create a new aesthetique with my perfumes, as with my clothes, to teach a new way of perceiving odors and scents in general, a new technique in smelling. It occurred to me when I was in the country, and I sleep on the grass, and I smell the verdure, the foliage around me, why is it that people always make perfumes from flowers?... Why not from these things as well? Surely, they are as stirring, as thrilling... these scents of the damp earth, and the leaves, the pine trees, the salt marshes, as those of flowers...much more so to some of us. So I make a perfume from the grass...You know how fragrant it is when you crush it in your hands...And from the boxwood.... And from the ivy... And from the moss... I have made a perfume even from the plants that grow deep in the sea... They have a sharp a bitter smell... how you say amer? Yes, pungent. And when I do use a flower, I take an unusual one like geranium, for instance. "I have made a very wonderful perfume from ivy leaves and geranium leaves combined. I will show you I have some on my dresser."  
M. Poiret makes a swift dart into another room and returns with a small, round bottle with dark, ivy colored stopper. "Mea Culpa is its name." We are urged to put some on the fur collar of our coat, where we are assured it will linger a long time. A French trick evidently, this mingling perfume and fur. We remember it was the manner in which Vorska perfumed us with the divine Sarah's favorite odor... Which reminds us to ask M. Poiret whether he believes in one perfume for a woman, that is always to be identified with her, that lies in the scent of her glove, her handkerchief, that lingers in a room after she has left it... But no, he agrees with us that we are more complex nowadays... A woman needs many scents... But she must choose only those that reveal herself... 
"Some days she is good tempered", twinkled M. Poiret, "and some days she is bad tempered," modifying this momentary lack in French gallantry, with one of the two smiles he permitted himself during the half hour... "So that she must have scents for each mood... and she should have the same diversity for each costume...Just as you say, Madame... But these scents, whether they are six or twelve, all will be in the same tone the same key...They must harmonize with her personality." 
And did M. Poiret believe in any scent for men? We know the Latin thinks differently from our men about that.. The usual American feels that he is not a 100 percent, red-blooded male if he uses any scent, except possibly a touch of eau de cologne, or lavender water after shaving... But why should he not, if he likes perfumes, why should he not wish to use them. 
"There is no reason at all," answers M. Poiret quickly. "But my perfumes are best of all for him, because they are not from flowers, they have a tang...what you call over here 'pep'.. they mingle well with tobacco.. With some of my bottles I have a glass stopper, and with that, one may perfume one's cigarettes. We cannot buy them already perfumed in Paris, since the government owns the tobacco, and we must buy the kind of cigarettes he makes himself.

"I start in making perfumes first as an amateur, for my own amusement and pleasure.. I make them in my own house... And then my friends like them so much they ask me to make some for them... And then I make so many I must ask people to pay... And finally I take up the making of perfumes seriously and now I have my own factory I am happy to see so many of my perfumes in the stores here, too... I have a perfume that is made from old leaves, that rich, damp smell of the woods in autumn...There is one made only of fruits...' Forbidden Fruit' I call it...
"Just before I leave Paris, I have made a perfume which I shall call 'Bosquet d'Apollon'. It represents Versailles... all the foliage, the verdure there, after a rain, the scent that comes from the grass and the leaves as you crush them underfoot in walking... It will be ready in a few weeks... I like always that my scents become well known before they are actually ready to be sold. A perfume to be right must stand, be matured in the wood some time, like wine, like a true liqueur..."  
There we found our time was up. And so fascinated had we been by M. Poiret's descriptions, we rushed forth to a round of the various 'beauty counters' to discover who kept the Poiret perfumes, and what were their various names and odors. Succumbing to their lure, we bought two wicked ones for ourself, and three others for Christmas presents. 

La parfumerie française et l'art dans la présentation, 1927:
"Is there a prettier name than Rosine? And didn't the fairy who watched over her birth predestined this child to be the queen of perfumes, since her name was derived from the Rose, queen of flowers. So judged his parents. After realizing, and with what success! The symphony of colors in the charming drapes which today model the half-naked of women, the unparalleled artist that is Paul Poiret, did he not take it into his head to create from scratch, a perfumery factory which was good to him. What name to give it? By blue, that of his daughter. So much so that one would almost suspect that he designed this one for that one at the same time. Perfumes, colors and tones respond to each other, he says in the preface to his catalog, which is itself a marvel. He seems to have intuitively understood the language of flowers, and it is apparently for you, ladies, that he has enclosed questions and answers in these menus, bottles which each constitute an object of art in deep, intimate and complete harmony. with the scent they contain. 
Reading the catalog is a poem. Each perfume name is an evocation of dreams. "Le Minaret" transports us to the land of harems. To smell this perfume so well veiled in its Turkish case, one feels seized by the torpor of the beautiful sultanas, stretched out languorously in the middle of the cushions on the large sofa which calls for caresses. With "Toute la Foret," we are surrounded by greenery. A smell of wet earth, mushrooms, ferns, envelops us. The Fauns pursue the Nymphs. Take care. "La Nuit de Chine" poses a troubling and topical problem. Wait for the response. "Borgia", evokes the scenes of the Grand Guignol, murders and bloodthirsty passions, which are still imbued with the scents of Venice, by the starry nights. "Le Fruit Defendu," this title alone is enough for all women to want it. It is eminently psychological and of all times. But what smell can it have? Try. Why name them all? Whether it's "Hahna, l'Etrange Fleur" or "Bosquet d'Apollon," of "Antinea" or "Arlequinade", you can be certain, ladies, that the exquisite aromas, the most fragrant flowers, the most delicate balms have been brought together to provide you with the most pleasant of sensations, the annihilation of your senses, in a delicious dream. Here are some views of the Rosine factories, fitted with all the modern refinements."

Paul Poiret's Fashion Salon:

Paul Poiret was renowned not only for his revolutionary contributions to fashion but also for his visionary approach to interior design. Embracing the modern aesthetic of his era, Poiret undertook extensive renovations of his salons and boutiques to reflect contemporary sensibilities. A notable example of his commitment to modernity is evident in his commission of Edgar Brandt, the foremost Art Deco ironworker, to design the distinctive bronze grillwork doors and interior staircase showcased in the photograph above. These elements adorned Poiret's prestigious atelier located at 1 Champs-Elysées Round Point, completed in 1925. Brandt's craftsmanship not only complemented Poiret's avant-garde fashion creations but also elevated the space with a harmonious blend of functionality and artistic expression. Poiret's collaboration with Brandt exemplifies his dedication to integrating art and design, setting new standards of elegance and innovation that defined the ambiance of his renowned fashion house during the early 20th century.

Paul Poiret's studio.1925

Paul Poiret's studio.1925

Paul Poiret, Paris, October 1925 surrounded by luxurious textiles in his salon. © Lipnitzki / Roger-Viollet. Paris En Images.

Poiret’s coat-kimono. Paris, 1922. © Lipnitzki / Roger-Viollet. Paris En Images.

Poiret dress, 1925. © Lipnitzki / Roger-Viollet. Paris En Images.

Atelier Martine:

Display window at Atelier Martine c1925.

Paul Poiret, Maison Martine. Les salons du 83 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, Paris. / Collections Roger-Viollet / BHVP

Les Parfums de Rosine Boutique:

Display windows for Parfums de Rosine. 1925 © Lipnitzki/Roger-Viollet

Entrance to the Rosine perfumery 1925 © Lipnitzki/Roger-Viollet

Entrance to the Rosine perfumery 1925 © Lipnitzki/Roger-Viollet
In 1925, Paul Poiret introduced an innovative feature to the Rosine shop: a striking black and white marble "perfume bar" designed to enhance the customer experience. This luxurious installation was adorned with numerous Atelier Martine painted glass atomizers, each filled with the enticing array of Rosine fragrances. Positioned in front of the bar were two simulated folding chairs, inviting patrons to perch comfortably while they sampled the tantalizing aromas. A long mirror mounted on the back wall not only added to the bar's aesthetic but also allowed customers to appreciate their selections.

Behind the bar, I envision boxes of meticulously sealed Rosine perfumes stacked and ready for presentation to customers as they made their choices. An attentive attendant stood poised to assist patrons in navigating the fragrance offerings, ensuring a personalized shopping experience. Adjacent to the bar, a shelf held a Rosine perfume burner, likely emitting fragrant wisps into the salon air, enhancing the ambiance and immersing visitors in the world of Rosine's luxurious scents.

Colorizing the vintage black and white photograph below may not perfectly capture the period-accurate hues, but it helps visualize the opulence and sophistication of Poiret's vision for Rosine's shop environment. This innovative perfume bar not only showcased Poiret's commitment to blending artistry with commerce but also underscored his pioneering spirit in elevating the presentation and accessibility of luxury fragrances during the early 20th century.

Paris Shopping Guide, 1929:
"He uses materials which others would not dare touch, and he knows of fabrics which have never entered into the experience of many couturiers. When there is nothing that suits him for a particular purpose, he designs his own materials, inspired by his huge documentation. He combines the color of Russia with the line of Italy, and marries other materials, colors, line, in dangerous and disturbing ways. He believes that the glories of the past should have their place in the creations of to-day in spirit only, not in transferred forms. He presents his perfumes, those of Rosine, to the world in a unique way via a "perfume bar" in the room at the right of the entrance downstairs, a bar adorned with intoxicating flasks and atomizers, instead of cordials and aperitifs. The perfume and the decorative branches are named after his daughters, Martine and Rosine."

Inside the Rosine perfumery 1925 © Lipnitzki/Roger-Viollet. To the right is the black and white marble "perfume bar" and its seats placed behind the bar.

Inside the Rosine perfumery 1925 © Lipnitzki/Roger-Viollet

Great Falls Tribune, 1925:
"Lilac, Poiret grants the most refined odor; chypre the odor one associates with the cafe girl. Flowers from the forest one allotted to the wholesome, vital femme who fills her lungs on foot, not in motors. The heavy oriental perfumes are to be used only by the girl with a dash of the orient in her dress and in her eyes. 
For the light blonde, flat, delicate odors are suggested, such as jasmine, lily of the valley; for the gray haired woman, he prescribes lilac or violet; for the brunette, a combination of rose, carnation, with a touch of chypre; for the sophisticated red head, a lighter odor for the more delicate Titian haired, perhaps a combination of jasmine, tuberose and mignonette. Rose, he tells me, is not for the blonde."

To sustain the extravagant lifestyle that was integral to showcasing and promoting his enterprises, Paul Poiret required ever-increasing funds. However, as the Art Deco movement gained momentum, his once-celebrated orientalist fashions and fragrances began to seem outdated and out of sync with modern trends. While Poiret's lavish designs started to be perceived as old-fashioned and dowdy, contemporary designers like Coco Chanel and Jean Patou adeptly adapted to the changing times. They embraced streamlined, minimalist aesthetics that resonated with the new era's sensibilities, introducing influential trends such as beige suits, short skirts, little black cocktail dresses, and chic sportswear for women. As a result, Poiret's style, which had once been the epitome of avant-garde, struggled to maintain its relevance in a rapidly evolving fashion landscape.

In turn, Chanel and Patou's fragrances stayed current by incorporating sporty and lighter formulas made with newly orchestrated ingredients such as sparkling aldehydes, while Poiret's fragrances remained heavy and distinctly Far Eastern in style. To reduce manufacturing costs, Chanel and Patou opted for simple, standard bottles for all their scents, contrasting sharply with Poiret's fanciful but ultimately expensive flasks. Sales were declining across the board, and Poiret struggled to keep his businesses afloat. He recounted the disdain of his investors: "What is the good of all this useless caprice?...Your flask and your new ideas, we don't want them, they cost too much!" The clash between Poiret's extravagant vision and the investors' practical concerns highlighted the growing disconnect between his brand and the evolving fashion and fragrance market.

The perfume Coeur en Folie made its debut at the 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris. This fragrance stood out not only for its scent but also for its distinctive packaging: a striking red glass heart-shaped bottle, capped with a stopper fashioned into delicate frosted glass wings. The bottle's whimsical design embodied Poiret's flair for the dramatic and his commitment to integrating art with perfumery.

Determined to maintain the visibility and allure of Les Parfums Rosine, Poiret actively launched advertising campaigns and introduced new perfumes, such as Coeur en Folie and the fragrance named 1925. These efforts were part of his strategy to rekindle public interest and sustain the brand's relevance in a rapidly changing market. Through innovative packaging and persistent promotion, Poiret aimed to capture the imagination of his audience and continue the legacy of his luxurious and artistically inspired scents.

The business's decline was hastened by an extravagant stunt Poiret staged for the 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris. In a bold display of opulence, he organized three magnificently decorated barges.....each lavishly adorned to showcase his artistic vision. These floating masterpieces were intended to captivate the public and highlight the grandeur of his brand.

However, this ambitious endeavor proved to be a costly miscalculation. The substantial resources required for such a spectacle strained Poiret's already dwindling finances. Despite the visual splendor and the considerable attention garnered, the event failed to translate into the desired commercial success. Instead of revitalizing his business, the extravagant stunt exacerbated his financial woes, marking a significant turning point in the decline of his fashion and fragrance empire. The grandiose effort to maintain his position at the forefront of haute couture ultimately underscored the growing disconnect between Poiret's opulent aesthetic and the more practical, modern sensibilities that were beginning to dominate the industry.

Poiret lost all financial control in 1925, shortly after the Art Deco Expo. Desperate to raise funds by December of that year, he decided to sell part of his modern art collection, including a landscape by Dunoyer de Segonzac, which he had originally purchased for 900 francs in 1912. This proved to be a wise investment, as Poiret managed to sell the painting for 95,000 francs at his auction.

The sale, which lasted for several days, attracted a diverse and affluent crowd, including wealthy Parisians, actresses, politicians, and agents for American collectors. The event was a significant success, with Poiret's collection of modern paintings bringing in a record total of 580,000 francs. Despite this influx of funds, the sale underscored the dire financial straits Poiret found himself in, highlighting his urgent need to liquidate valuable assets to sustain his struggling business and maintain his extravagant lifestyle.

In 1927, Paul Poiret made a significant move by transferring his entire establishment, encompassing dressmaking, interior decoration (Martine), and perfumes (Rosine), to a new location. He left the beautiful hotel in the Faubourg Saint-Honoré, which he had occupied for many years, and relocated to 1, Rond-Point des Champs-Elysées. This move marked a new chapter for Poiret, as he sought to revitalize his business and adapt to the changing times. The new premises at the prestigious Champs-Elysées aimed to attract a fresh clientele and rejuvenate his brand, positioning it within one of Paris's most renowned and fashionable districts.

He set up the Rosine perfumes at his palatial house at Rond-Point as if it were a luxurious bar, strategically overlooking the famous circular vestibule. This grand space featured an elaborate ceiling adorned with painted signs of the zodiac, depicting the stars at the moment of his birth. Dominating this celestial display was a classic nude figure of a woman, adding an air of timeless elegance and artistic sophistication. This opulent and meticulously designed setting provided a fitting backdrop for the Rosine perfumes, enhancing their allure and aligning them with Poiret's vision of high fashion and refined luxury. The unique presentation aimed to captivate visitors, blending the art of perfumery with the grandeur of his architectural masterpiece.

In 1928, Paul Poiret and his wife, Denise, went through an incredibly bitter divorce. Poiret reportedly told their children's governess, "Make sure to tell madame to take anything she wishes," reflecting the acrimony and emotional toll of their separation. During this turbulent period, Roger Bloch, a financier and friend of Poiret, stepped in to assist him. Bloch helped Poiret raise a loan and eventually facilitated the sale of Atelier Martine, his decorative arts studio, and his perfumery concern, Parfums de Rosine.

By 1929, Poiret's once-thriving fashion empire had collapsed as his Parisian clientele dwindled. In a desperate attempt to alleviate his mounting debts, Poiret sold his extensive collection of modern art. Despite these efforts, the proceeds were insufficient to satisfy his creditors and investors, leaving Poiret's financial situation increasingly dire. The relentless pressure from his debts ultimately marked the end of his illustrious career in the fashion world, signaling a poignant conclusion to his legacy of innovation and opulence.

In 1930, Les Parfums de Rosine was acquired by Société Centrale de la Parfumerie Française (SCPF), a company established by Armand Schul in 1910. Schul had previously purchased Oriza L. LeGrand, another notable name in the world of perfumery. Following the acquisition, Les Parfums de Rosine was managed by Madame Nevarte Cordero, who took over the reins and continued to uphold the brand's prestigious reputation.

Under the new management, Rosine perfumes continued to enchant customers with their exotic and evocative scents. The lineup included beloved fragrances such as Arlequin, Maharadjah, Aladin, Borgia, Nuit de Chine, Chez Poiret, Coraline de Rosine, La Rose de Rosine, Le Balcon, Hahna, Mea Culpa, Le Bosquet d'Apollon, Le Fruit Defendu, Antinea, Toute la Forêt, Pierrot, Mouchoir de Rosine, and La Coupe d'Or. These perfumes, each with their unique character and story, ensured that the legacy of Paul Poiret's visionary creations endured in the world of haute perfumery.

 In 1930, Paul Poiret sold his luxurious villa in Mézy, a masterpiece designed by the modernist French architect Robert Mallet-Stevens, to the Countess of Foy, Elvire Popesco. The renovation and design project of this grand villa proved to be so exorbitantly expensive that Poiret had never even lived in the main house, instead, he resided in the caretaker's cottage on the property. This sale marked yet another step in Poiret's efforts to liquidate his assets amidst financial turmoil.

Unable to maintain his palatial townhouse, Poiret was forced to sell most of its opulent furniture and treasured paintings. He then moved into a modest apartment above the Salle Pleyel, a renowned concert hall in Paris. This significant downsize symbolized the stark contrast between Poiret's former life of grandeur and the financial constraints he faced in his later years. Despite these hardships, Poiret's influence on fashion and perfumery continued to resonate, leaving an indelible mark on the industry.

In 1932, Paul Poiret faced a devastating blow when his esteemed fashion salon located on Rond Point des Champs-Élysées entered bankruptcy. This marked the culmination of his financial downfall, leading to the auction of nearly everything within the salon's walls. Poiret's extensive collection of sketches, luxurious fabrics, meticulously kept business files, personal correspondence, rare illustrated volumes from various corners of the globe, and even a manuscript of a play were all put up for sale.

The auction included treasured possessions such as a portrait of the Poiret family painted by Benito, capturing a poignant moment in their history. Above all, Poiret's sumptuous and iconic garments, which had once graced the elite and adorned the fashion pages, were tragically sold in bulk by weight to ragpickers. This symbolic and crushing end to his salon and its contents not only marked the end of an era for Poiret personally but also underscored the harsh realities of financial misfortune that befell many during the economic hardships of the early 20th century.

 In 1933, Paul Poiret attempted to revive his career by producing ready-to-wear collections for prestigious establishments such as Liberty's of London and Printemps department store in Paris. Despite these efforts, his designs struggled to resonate with contemporary tastes, failing to capture the imagination of the clientele he once commanded. This setback compounded Poiret's financial woes, exacerbated by the lingering effects of the Great Depression.

By August 21, 1935, Poiret faced the harsh reality of eviction from his beloved salon. The closure was precipitated by significant financial losses, reflecting the broader economic challenges of the era. Struggling with extreme poverty, Poiret found himself relying on unemployment benefits, receiving a modest stipend of 10 francs twice a week as part of the "artists" dole. His circumstances were dire enough that he resorted to visiting soup kitchens, where he could obtain basic sustenance such as dry bread, soup, and watery wine, often costing him 3 francs.

Poiret's descent from the pinnacle of haute couture to destitution starkly illustrated the profound impact of economic downturns on even the most celebrated figures in fashion history. His story serves as a poignant reminder of the fragility of success and the challenges faced by artists and innovators in times of financial upheaval.

In 1936, Paul Poiret's life had taken a stark turn from his days of opulence and acclaim. Residing in a modest seventh-floor apartment at No. 252 Faubourg-Saint-Honoré, he inhabited surroundings reminiscent of a scene from Dickens' "Great Expectations". His living space resembled a cluttered boudoir akin to Miss Havisham's, filled with remnants of his former extravagant lifestyle now fallen into disrepair.

Within the apartment, remnants of his exquisite tapestries hung moth-eaten, while once grand divans sagged under the weight of faded cushions. Objets d'art that once adorned his salons now gathered dust, and once sparkling mirrors dulled with age. Paintings hung on walls draped with diaphanous cobwebs, and stacks of papers bore the traces of mice and their nibbles, a haunting testament to neglect and financial hardship.

The scene encapsulated the stark contrast between Poiret's past as a pioneering couturier and his present reality of destitution. It poignantly illustrated the toll of economic adversity on a once vibrant and celebrated figure in the world of fashion, highlighting the ephemeral nature of fame and fortune in the face of changing fortunes and historical turbulence.

In his later years, Paul Poiret found himself in a vastly different role from his glory days as a fashion icon. By the time he resorted to bartending at his former model Regine's bar, the Bar Corse at No. 4 Place du Théâtre-Français, his life had taken a poignant turn. Regine, sympathizing with her former employer's plight, not only employed him to pour drinks but also entrusted him with decorating the barroom and maintaining its glassware.

Gone were the days of Poiret's lavish attire; instead, he now sported suits hastily fashioned from chopped-up tea towels, a stark reminder of his fall from fashion royalty to financial hardship. This transformation was a poignant departure from his former status as the "King of Fashion," known for extravagant lifestyles and opulent designs that once adorned the elite.

Despite these humbling circumstances, Regine's gesture of compassion extended further, providing Poiret with the means to purchase a new suit. His stint at the Bar Corse not only symbolized his resilience in adapting to his changed circumstances but also reflected the unpredictable twists of fate that marked his later life.

Meanwhile, Les Parfums de Rosine, Inc. established its presence at 20 West 37th Street in New York, marking a continuation of the brand's legacy in the American market. Meanwhile, during the mid-1930s, older stocks of Rosine perfumes were being sold off at steeply discounted prices by various retailers, reflecting the economic challenges of the time.

In 1937, Société Centrale de la Parfumerie Française, which included Parfumerie Oriza L. Legrand, Les Parfums de Rosine, and Parfumerie Beaulieu, dissolved. The company, headquartered in Levallois-Perret at 16 rue Gide, ceased operations as a collective entity. However, in 1938, the name was registered as a trademark in the United States under Societe Centrale de la Parfumerie Francaise, Inc., indicating a continued presence in the American market despite the dissolution in France.

Throughout the 1950s, Les Parfums de Rosine continued to produce its existing line of perfumes, albeit in more standard and simplified presentations compared to the elaborate and luxurious packaging of earlier decades. This era marked a transition for the brand, adapting to changing market conditions while maintaining its essence and heritage in the world of perfumery.

In the final years of his life, Paul Poiret turned to writing and painting, finding solace and expression in these creative pursuits. However, his later years were marked by obscurity and financial struggle, a stark contrast to his earlier fame as a pioneering figure in haute couture. By the time he passed away, he was largely forgotten by the public that once adored him.

Paul Poiret died in 1944 in Paris, which was under German occupation during World War II. His death was attributed to Parkinson's disease, a progressive neurological disorder that he battled in his later years. Despite his significant contributions to fashion and perfumery, Poiret's passing occurred during a tumultuous period in history, overshadowed by the larger events unfolding in Europe during the war. His legacy, however, endures through his innovative designs, his influential role in early 20th-century fashion, and his pioneering efforts in the world of perfumery with Les Parfums de Rosine.

Les Parfums de Rosine was revived in 1991 by Bernard and Marie-Helen Rogeon. Marie-Helen Rogeon, a pivotal figure in this revival, boasts a notable lineage as the great-granddaughter of Louis Panafieu. Panafieu, renowned for crafting Eau de Colognes for Emperor Napoleon III, also formulated the celebrated "Pommade des Mousquetaires," known for its ability to impart a glossy finish to moustaches. Marie-Helen Rogeon's heritage and expertise have brought a rich historical legacy to the revitalization of Les Parfums de Rosine, infusing the brand with a deep connection to prestigious perfumery traditions dating back to the imperial era of France.

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